(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent No.: US 6,506,148 B2
(45) Date of Patent: Jan. 14, 2003


(76) Inventor: Hendricus G. Loos, 3019 Cresta Way, Laguna Beach, CA (US) 92651

  • 0
    (*) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
    patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 8 days.

(21) Appl. No.: 09/872,528
(22) Filed: Jun. 1, 2001


Prior Publication Data

US 2002/0188164 A1 Dec. 12, 2002

(51) Int. Cl. ………………………. A61N 200. A61B 504;

A61M 21/00

(52) U.S. Cl. …………………………………… 600/27; 600/545

(58) Field of Search

600/9-27, 545:

313/419,324/31s: 37s/901; 434(236





References Cited


3,592,965 A 7/1971 Diaz …………………….. 313/419

4,800,893 A * 1/1989 Ross et al. .

… 600/545

5,169,380 A 12/1992 Brennan .,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 600/26

5,304,112 A 4/1994 Mirklas et al. ………….. 434/236

5,400,383 A 3/1995 Yassa et al. ……………. 378/901

5,412,419 A * 5/1995 Ziarati………. … 324/318

5,450,859 A 9/1995 Litovitz. ……………………. 600/9

5,782,874 A 7/1998 Loos ……………………….. 607/2

5,800,481 A 9/1998 Loos …..

… 607/100

5,899,922 A 5/1999 Loos ……………………….. 607/2

5,935,054 A 8/1999 Loos ……………………….. 600/9

6,017,302 A 1/2000 Loos …..


6,081,744 A 6/2000 LOOS ……………………….. 607/2

6,091,994. A 7/2000 Loos …..

… 607/100

6,167,304 A 12/2000 LOOS ……………………….. 607/2

6,238,333 B1 5/2001 Loos ……………………….. 600/9

N.Wiener “Nonlinear problems in random theory” p.71-72 John Wiley New York 1958. M.Hutchison “Megabrain” p.232­3 Ballantine Books New
York 1991.
C.A.Terzuolo and T.H.Bullock “Measurement of imposed
Voltage gradient adequate to modulate neuronal firing Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., Physiology 42,687­94, 1956. O.Kellogg”Foundations of Potential Theory’p. 191 Dover, 1953.
P.M.Morse and H.Feshbach”Methods of Theoretical Phys
ics’p. 1267 McGraw-Hill New York, 1953.

  • cited by examiner

Primary Examiner Eric F. Winakur

Assistant Examiner Nikita R Veniaminov



Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject
in response to Stimulation of the skin with weak electro
magnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near
/2 Hz or 2.4 Hz, Such as to excite a Sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of Sufficient
amplitudes to cause Such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous System of a Subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a
Video stream, either as an RF signal or as a Video Signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting Sensory resonances in nearby Subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with Subliminal intensity.

14 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 1 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 2 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 3 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2




51 (RANDOMIZE?)- FLG3= 1, SET B 68

s(t)=SIN(I/a I-ii/a) = . 1


I< 8

are/ 52


T=600007F, TA=75 OOZF, TT = 0.4*TA







-N 59




C(I)=P 1 + A2ks(t)h 63 64 ~\ R1 = Ro: C(I), G 1 = Go: C(I), B1 = Bo: C(I)

SCREEN COLOR R1, G 1, B1, I= I + 1 / 65
F. G. 6

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 4 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2



N 61

(FLG2= D


77 -/

LM-LM – 1

79 –
CR= 0 M-ML FLG 1 – O

(A FLG 1 – O AND FLG 2 – O ND MR( 15 AND MR < MP -73

F. G. 7

: 85
F1 = 1 –

FIG. 8

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 5 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2



U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 6 of 9
F. G. 1

US 6,506,148 B2

100 H . . . . .
P VA 8

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 7 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2

{F- LG- 3-D/ 47
— /s 48
<– 1.J. MoD320). wasam

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 8 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2

FG 16

FIG. 1 7

U.S. Patent Jan. 14, 2003 Sheet 9 of 9

US 6,506,148 B2






R= 13.83CM, |V(0)=266.2V
R=26.86 CM, IV (O) = 310.1V

F.G. 18

US 6,506,148 B2




what randomly around an average rate that depends on skin


temperature. Weak heat pulses delivered to the skin in


periodic fashion will therefore cause a slight frequency

modulation (fm) in the Spike patterns generated by the

nerves. Since Stimulation through other Sensory modalities


results in Similar physiological effects, it is believed that

The invention relates to the stimulation of the human frequency modulation of Spontaneous afferent neural Spik nervous System by an electromagnetic field applied exter ing patterns occurs there as well.

nally to the body. A neurological effect of external electric It is instructive to apply this notion to the Stimulation by

fields has been mentioned by Wiener (1958), in a discussion weak electric field pulses administered to the skin. The of the bunching of brain waves through nonlinear interac externally generated fields induce electric current pulses in

tions. The electric field was arranged to provide “a direct the underlying tissue, but the current density is much too

electrical driving of the brain’. Wiener describes the field as Small for firing an otherwise quiescent nerve. However, in set up by a 10 Hz, alternating voltage of 400 V applied in a experiments with adapting Stretch receptors of the crayfish,

room between ceiling and ground. Brennan (1992) describes 15 Terzuolo and Bullock (1956) have observed that very small

in U.S. Pat. No. 5,169,380 an apparatus for alleviating electric fields can Suffice for modulating the firing of already

disruptions in circadian rythms of a mammal, in which an active nerves. Such a modulation may occur in the electric

alternating electric field is applied acroSS the head of the field Stimulation under discussion.

Subject by two electrodes placed a short distance from the Further understanding may be gained by considering the


electric charges that accumulate on the skin as a result of the

A device involving a field electrode as well as a contact induced tissue currents. Ignoring thermodynamics, one

electrode is the “Graham Potentializer” mentioned by would expect the accumulated polarization charges to be

Hutchison (1991). This relaxation device uses motion, light confined Strictly to the outer Surface of the skin. But charge

and Sound as well as an alternating electric field applied mainly to the head. The contact electrode is a metal bar in


density is caused by a slight exceSS in positive or negative ions, and thermal motion distributes the ions through a thin

Ohmic contact with the bare feet of the subject, and the field layer. This implies that the externally applied electric field

electrode is a hemispherical metal headpiece placed Several actually penetrates a short distance into the tissue, instead of

inches from the subject’s head.

Stopping abruptly at the Outer Skin Surface. In this manner a

In these three electric Stimulation methods the external considerable fraction of the applied field may be brought to

electric field is applied predominantly to the head, So that bear on Some cutaneous nerve endings, So that a slight electric currents are induced in the brain in the physical modulation of the type noted by Terzuolo and Bullock may manner governed by electrodynamics. Such currents can be indeed occur.

largely avoided by applying the field not to the head, but The mentioned physiological effects are observed only

rather to skin areas away from the head. Certain cutaneous 35 when the strength of the electric field on the skin lies in a receptors may then be Stimulated and they would provide a certain range, called the effective intensity window. There

Signal input into the brain along the natural pathways of also is a bulk effect, in that weaker fields Suffice when the

afferent nerves. It has been found that, indeed, physiological field is applied to a larger Skin area. These effects are

effects can be induced in this manner by very weak electric discussed in detail in the 922 patent.

fields, if they are pulsed with a frequency near /2 Hz. The 40 Since the Spontaneous spiking of the nerves is rather observed effects include ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, random and the frequency modulation induced by the pulsed

drow Ziness, the feeling of pressure at a centered spot on the field is very shallow, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for the

lower edge of the brow, Seeing moving patterns of dark fm Signal contained in the Spike trains along the afferent

purple and greenish yellow with the eyes closed, a tonic nerves is So Small as to make recovery of the fm signal from

Smile, a tense feeling in the Stomach, Sudden loose Stool, and 45 a single nerve fiber impossibile. But application of the field Sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used, over a large skin area causes Simultaneous Stimulation of

and the skin area to which the field is applied. The Sharp many cutaneous nerves, and the fm modulation is then

frequency dependence Suggests involvement of a resonance coherent from nerve to nerve. Therefore, if the afferent


Signals are Somehow Summed in the brain, the fm modula

It has been found that the resonance can be excited not 50 tions add while the spikes from different nerves mix and

only by externally applied pulsed electric fields, as discussed interlace. In this manner the S/N can be increased by

in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,782,874, 5,899,922, 6,081,744, and appropriate neural processing. The matter is discussed in

6,167,304, but also by pulsed magnetic fields, as described detail in the 874 patent. Another increase in sensitivity is

in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,935,054 and 6,238,333, by weak heat due to involving a resonance mechanism, wherein consid

pulses applied to the skin, as discussed in U.S. Pat. NoS. 55 erable neural circuit oscillations can result from weak exci

5,800,481 and 6,091,994, and by Subliminal acoustic pulses, tations.

as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,302. Since the resonance An easily detectable physiological effect of an excited 72

is excited through Sensory pathways, it is called a Sensory HZ Sensory resonance is ptosis of the eyelids. AS discussed

resonance. In addition to the resonance near/2 HZ, a Sensory in the 922 patent, the ptosis test involves first closing the

resonance has been found near 2.4 Hz. The latter is char 60 eyes about half way. Holding this eyelid position, the eyes

acterized by the Slowing of certain cortical processes, as are rolled upward, while giving up Voluntary control of the

discussed in the 481, 922, 302, 744, 944, and 304 eyelids. The eyelid position is then determined by the state


of the autonomic nervous System. Furthermore, the preSSure

The excitation of Sensory resonances through weak heat eXcerted on the eyeballs by the partially closed eyelids

pulses applied to the skin provides a clue about what is going 65 increases parasympathetic activity. The eyelid position

on neurologically. Cutaneous temperature-Sensing receptors thereby becomes Somewhat labile, as manifested by a slight

are known to fire Spontaneously. These nerves Spike Some flutter. The labile state is sensitive to very small shifts in

US 6,506,148 B2



autonomic State. The ptosis influences the extent to which to the field Stimulation, or when the precise resonance

the pupil is hooded by the eyelid, and thus how much light frequency is not known. The variability may be a pseudo

is admitted to the eye. Hence, the depth of the ptosis is seen random variation within a narrow interval, or it can take the

by the Subject, and can be graded on a Scale from 0 to 10. form of a frequency or amplitude Sweep in time. The pulse

In the initial stages of the excitation of the /3 Hz sensory variability may be under control of the subject.

resonance, a downward drift is detected in the ptosis The program that causes a monitor to display a pulsing

frequency, defined as the Stimulation frequency for which image may be run on a remote computer that is connected to

maximum ptosis is obtained. This drift is believed to be the user computer by a link; the latter may partly belong to

caused by changes in the chemical milieu of the resonating a network, which may be the Internet.

neural circuits. It is thought that the resonance causes For a TV monitor, the image pulsing may be inherent in

perturbations of chemical concentrations. Somewhere in the the video stream as it flows from the video Source, or else the

brain, and that these perturbations spread by diffusion to Stream may be modulated Such as to overlay the pulsing. In

nearby resonating circuits. This effect, called “chemical the first case, a live TV broadcast can be arranged to have the

detuning’, can be So Strong that ptosis is lost altogether feature imbedded simply by slightly pulsing the illumination

when the Stimulation frequency is kept constant in the initial 15 of the Scene that is being broadcast. This method can of

Stages of the excitation. Since the Stimulation then falls course also be used in making movies and recording video

Somewhat out of tune, the resonance decreases in amplitude tapes and DVDs.

and chemical detuning eventually diminishes. This causes Video tapes can be edited Such as to overlay the pulsing

the ptosis frequency to shift back up, So that the Stimulation by means of modulating hardware. A simple modulator is

is more in tune and the ptosis can develop again. As a result, discussed wherein the luminance Signal of composite video

for fixed Stimulation frequencies in a certain range, the is pulsed without affecting the chroma Signal. The same ptosis Slowly cycles with a frequency of Several minutes. effect may be introduced at the consumer end, by modulat

The matter is discussed in the 302 patent.

ing the Video stream that is produced by the Video Source. A

The Stimulation frequencies at which specific physiologi DVD can be edited through software, by introducing pulse

cal effects occur depend Somewhat on the autonomic ner 25 like variations in the digital RGB Signals. Image intensity

Vous System State, and probably on the endocrine State as pulses can be overlaid onto the analog component Video


output of a DVD player by modulating the luminance Signal

Weak magnetic fields that are pulsed with a Sensory component. Before entering the TV Set, a television Signal

resonance frequency can induce the same physiological can be modulated Such as to cause pulsing of the image

effects as pulsed electric fields. Unlike the latter however, intensity by means of a variable delay line that is connected the magnetic fields penetrate biological tissue with nearly to a pulse generator.

undiminished Strength. Eddy currents in the tissue drive Certain monitors can emit electromagnetic field pulses

electric charges to the skin, where the charge distributions that excite a sensory resonance in a nearby Subject, through

are Subject to thermal Smearing in much the same way as in image pulses that are So weak as to be Subliminal. This is electric field Stimulation, So that the same physiological 35 unfortunate Since it opens a way for mischievous application

effects develop. Details are discussed in the 054 patent. of the invention, whereby people are exposed unknowingly


to manipulation of their nervous Systems for Someone else’s purposes. Such application would be unethical and is of

Computer monotors and TV monitors can be made to emit weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields merely by puls


course not advocated. It is mentioned here in order to alert
the public to the possibility of covert abuse that may occur

ing the intensity of displayed images. Experiments have while being online, or while watching TV, a Video, or a

shown that the 72 HZ Sensory resonance can be excited in this DVD.

manner in a Subject near the monitor. The 2.4 HZ Sensory


resonance can also be excited in this fashion. Hence, a TV monitor or computer monitor can be used to manipulate the nervous System of nearby people.
The implementations of the invention are adapted to the
Source of Video stream that drives the monitor, be it a computer program, a TV broadcast, a Video tape or a digital
video disc (DVD). For a computer monitor, the image pulses can be produced
by a Suitable computer program. The pulse frequency may be controlled through keyboard input, So that the Subject can

45 50

FIG. 1 illustrates the electromagnetic field that emanates from a monitor when the Video signal is modulated Such as to cause pulses in image intensity, and a nearby Subject who is exposed to the field.
FIG. 2 shows a circuit for modulation of a composite Video signal for the purpose of pulsing the image intensity.
FIG. 3 shows the circuit for a simple pulse generator. FIG. 4 illustrates how a pulsed electromagnetic field can be generated with a computer monitor.

tune to an individual Sensory resonance frequency. The pulse amplitude can be controlled as well in this manner. A program written in Visual Basic(R) is particularly Suitable


FIG. 5 shows a pulsed electromagnetic field that is generated by a television set through modulation of the RF signal input to the TV.

for use on computers that run the Windows 95(R) or Windows 98(R) operating system. The structure of such a

FIG. 6 outlines the Structure of a computer program for producing a pulsed image.

program is described. Production of periodic pulses requires 60 FIG. 7 shows an extrapolation procedure introduced for an accurate timing procedure. Such a procedure is con improving timing accuracy of the program of FIG. 6.

structed from the GetTime Count function available in the FIG. 8 illustrates the action of the extrapolation procedure

Application Program Interface (API) of the Windows oper of FIG. 7.

ating System, together with an extrapolation procedure that FIG. 9 shows a Subject exposed to a pulsed electromag

improves the timing accuracy.

65 netic field emanating from a monitor which is responsive to

Pulse variability can be introduced through software, for a program running on a remote computer via a link that

the purpose of thwarting habituation of the nervous System involves the Internet.

US 6,506,148 B2



FIG. 10 shows the block diagram of a circuit for fre Video however, intensity as defined above is not a primary

quency wobbling of a TV signal for the purpose of pulsing Signal feature, but luminance Y is. For any pixel one has

the intensity of the image displayed on a TV monitor. FIG. 11 depicts Schematically a recording medium in the


form of a video tape with recorded data, and the attribute of where R, G, and B are the intensities of the pixel respec the Signal that causes the intensity of the displayed image to tively in red, green and blue, normalized Such as to range

be pulsed.

from 0 to 1. The definition (3) was provided by the Com

FIG. 12 illustrates how image pulsing can be embedded in a Video signal by pulsing the illumination of the Scene that is being recorded.
FIG. 13 shows a routine that introduces pulse variability into the computer program of FIG. 6.

mission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), in order to account for brightness differences at different colors, as perceived by the human Visual System. In composite Video
the hue of the pixel is determined by the chroma Signal or chrominance, which has the components R-Y and B-Y It follows that pulsing pixel luminance while keeping the hue

FIG. 14 shows schematically how a CRT emits an elec fixed is equivalent to pulsing the pixel intensity, up to an

tromagnetic field when the displayed image is pulsed. 15 amplitude factor. This fact will be relied upon when modu

FIG. 15 shows how the intensity of the image displayed lating a video Stream Such as to overlay image intensity

on a monitor can be pulsed through the brightness control pulses.

terminal of the monitor.

It turns out that the Screen emission has a multipole

FIG. 16 illustrates the action of the polarization disc that expansion wherein both monopole and dipole contributions

Serves as a model for grounded conductors in the back of a are proportional to the rate of change of the intensity I of (1).

CRT Screen.

The higher order multipole contributions are proportional to

FIG. 17 shows the circuit for overlaying image intensity pulses on a DVD output.

the rate of change of moments of the current density over the image, but since these contributions fall off rapidly with distance, they are not of practical importance in the present

FIG. 18 shows measured data for pulsed electric fields emitted by two different CRT type monitors, and a compari son with theory.


context. Pulsing the intensity of an image may involve different pulse amplitudes, frequencies, or phases for differ ent parts of the image. Any or all of these features may be


under Subject control. The question arises whether the Screen emission can be

Computer monitors and TV monitors emit electromag Strong enough to excite Sensory resonances in people located

netic fields. Part of the emission occurs at the low frequen at normal viewing distances from the monitor. This turns out

cies at which displayed images are changing. For instance, to be the case, as shown by Sensory resonance experiments

a rythmic pulsing of the intensity of an image causes and independently by measuring the strength of the emitted

electromagnetic field emission at the pulse frequency, with electric field pulses and comparing the results with the

a strength proportional to the pulse amplitude. The field is 35 effective intensity window as explored in earlier work.

briefly referred to as “Screen emission’. In discussing this One-half Hertz Sensory resonance experiments have been

effect, any part or all what is displayed on the monitor Screen conducted with the Subject positioned at least at normal

is called an image. A monitor of the cathode ray tube (CRT) Viewing distance from a 15″ computer monitor that was

type has three electron beams, one for each of the basic driven by a computer program written in Visual Basic(R),

colorS red, green, and blue. The intensity of an image is here 40 version 6.0 (VB6). The program produces a pulsed image

defined as

with uniform luminance and hue over the full Screen, except

for a few small control buttons and text boxes. In VB6,

I= i dA,

(1) Screen pixel colors are determined by integers R, G, and B,

where the integral extends over the image, and

that range from 0 to 255, and set the contributions to the 45 pixel color made by the basic colors red, green, and blue. For


a CRT-type monitor, the pixel intensities for the primary colors may depend on the RGB values in a nonlinear manner

jr., jig, and b being the electric current densities in the red, that will be discussed. In the VB6 program the RGB values

green, and blue electron beams at the Surface area dA of the are modulated by Small pulses AR, AG, AB, with a frequency

image on the Screen. The current densities are to be taken in 50 that can be chosen by the Subject or is Swept in a predeter

the distributed electron beam model, where the discreteness mined manner. In the Sensory resonance experiments men

of pixels and the raster motion of the beams are ignored, and tioned above, the ratios AR/R, AG/G, and AB/B were always

the back of the monitor screen is thought to be irradiated by Smaller than 0.02, So that the image pulses are quite weak.

diffuse electron beams. The beam current densities are then For certain frequencies near 72 HZ, the Subject experienced

functions of the coordinates X and y over the Screen. The 55 physiological effects that are known to accompany the

model is appropriate Since we are interested in the electro excitation of the 72 HZ Sensory resonance as mentioned in

magnetic field emision caused by image pulsing with the the Background Section. Moreover, the measured field pulse

very low frequencies of Sensory resonances, whereas the amplitudes fall within the effective intensity window for the

emissions with the much higher horizontal and vertical /2 HZ resonance, as explored in earlier experiments and

Sweep frequencies are of no concern. For a CRT the intensity 60 discussed in the 874, 744, 922, and 304 patents. Other

of an image is expressed in millamperes.

experiments have shown that the 2.4 HZ Sensory resonance

For a liquid crystal display (LCD), the current densities in can be exited as well by Screen emissions from monitors that the definition of image intensity are to be replaced by driving display pulsed images.

Voltages, multiplied by the aperture ratio of the device. For These results confirm that, indeed, the nervous System of

an LCD, image intensities are thus expressed in Volts. 65 a Subject can be manipulated through electromagnetic field

It will be shown that for a CRT or LCD Screen emissions pulses emitted by a nearby CRT or LCD monitor which

are caused by fluctuations in image intensity. In composite displays images with pulsed intensity.

US 6,506,148 B2



The various implementations of the invention are adapted capacitor 22 and potentiometer 23. The timer 21 is powered

to the different Sources of Video Stream, Such as Video tape, by a battery 26, controlled by the Switch 27. The square

DVD, a computer program, or a TV broadcast through free wave voltage at output 25 drives the LED 24, which may be

Space or cable. In all of these implementations, the Subject used for monitoring of the pulse frequency, and also Serves

is exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field that is gen as power indicator. The pulse output may be rounded in

erated by the monitor as the result of image intensity ways that are well known in the art. In the setup of FIG. 1,

pulsing. Certain cutaneous nerves of the Subject exhibit the output of VCR 1 is connected to the video input 13 of

Spontaneous spiking in patterns which, although rather FIG. 2, and the video output 14 is connected to the monitor

random, contain Sensory information at least in the form of 2 of FIG. 1.

average frequency. Some of these nerves have receptors that In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the image

respond to the field Stimulation by changing their average intensity pulsing is caused by a computer program. AS

spiking frequency, So that the spiking patterns of these shown in FIG.4, monitor 2, labeled “MON’, is connected to

nerves acquire a frequency modulation, which is conveyed computer 31 labeled “COMPUTER”, which runs a program

to the brain. The modulation can be particularly effective if that produces an image on the monitor and causes the image

it has a frequency at or near a Sensory resonance frequency. 15 intensity to be pulsed. The Subject 4 can provide input to the

Such frequencies are expected to lie in the range from 0.1 to computer through the keyboard 32 that is connected to the

15 HZ.

computer by the connection 33. This input may involve

An embodiment of the invention adapted to a VCR is adjustments of the frequency or the amplitude or the vari

shown in FIG. 1, where a subject 4 is exposed to a pulsed ability of the image intensity pulses. In particular, the pulse

electric field 3 and a pulsed magnetic field 39 that are frequency can be set to a Sensory resonance frequency of the

emitted by a monitor 2, labeled “MON’, as the result of Subject for the purpose of exciting the resonance.

pulsing the intensity of the displayed image. The image is The Structure of a computer program for pulsing image

here generated by a video casette recorder 1, labeled “VCR’, intensity is shown in FIG. 6. The program may be written in

and the pulsing of the image intensity is obtained by Visual Basic(R) version 6.0 (VB6), which involves the

modulating the composite Video signal from the VCR out 25 graphics interface familiar from the WindowS(R) operating

put. This is done by a video modulator 5, labeled “VM’, System. The images appear as forms equipped with user

which responds to the Signal from the pulse generator 6, controls Such as command buttons and Scroll bars, together

labeled “GEN”. The frequency and amplitude of the image with data displays such as text boxes. A compiled VB6

pulses can be adjusted with the frequency control 7 and program is an executable file. When activated, the program

amplitude control 8. Frequency and amplitude adjustments declares variables and functions to be called from a dynamic

can be made by the Subject.

link library (DLL) that is attached to the operating System;

The circuit of the video modulator 5 of FIG. 1 is shown an initial form load is performed as well. The latter com

in FIG. 2, where the video amplifiers 11 and 12 process the prises Setting the Screen color as Specified by integerS R, G,

composite Video signal that enters at the input terminal 13. and B in the range 0 to 255, as mentioned above. In FIG. 6,

The level of the video signal is modulated slowly by 35 the initial setting of the screen color is labeled as 50. Another

injecting a Small bias current at the inverting input 17 of the action of the form load routine is the computation 51 of the

first amplifier 11. This current is caused by Voltage pulses Sine function at eight equally Spaced points, I=0 to 7, around

Supplied at the modulation input 16, and can be adjusted the unit circle. These values are needed when modulating the

through the potentiometer 15. Since the noninverting input RGB numbers. Unfortunately, the sine function is distorted

of the amplifier is grounded, the inverting input 17 is kept 40 by the rounding to integer RGB values that occurs in the

essentially at ground potential, So that the bias current is is VB6 program. The image is chosen to fill as much of the

not influenced by the video signal. The inversion of the Screen area as possible, and it has spatially uniform lumi

signal by the first amplifier 11 is undone by the second nance and hue.

amplifier 12. The gains of the amplifiers are chosen Such as The form appearing on the monitor displays a command

to give a unity overall gain. A slowly varying current 45 button for Starting and stopping the image pulsing, together

injected at the inverting input 17 causes a slow shift in the with scroll bars 52 and 53 respectively for adjustment of the

“pseudo-dc’ level of the composite Video signal, here pulse frequency F and the pulse amplitude A. These pulses

defined as the short-term average of the Signal. Since the could be initiated by a System timer which is activated upon

pseudo-dc level of the chroma Signal Section determines the the elapse of a preset time interval. However, timers in VB6

luminance, the latter is modulated by the injected current 50 are too inaccurate for the purpose of providing the eight

pulses. The chroma Signal is not affected by the slow RGB adjustment points in each pulse cycle. An improve

modulation of the pseudodic level, Since that Signal is deter ment can be obtained by using the GetTickCount function

mined by the amplitude and phase with respect to the color that is available in the Application Program Interface (API)

carrier which is locked to the color burst. The effect on the of Windows 95(R) and Windows 98(R). The GetTickCount

Sync pulses and color bursts is of no consequence either if 55 function returns the System time that has elapsed since

the injected current pulses are very Small, as they are in Starting Windows, expressed in milliseconds. User activa

practice. The modulated composite Video signal, available at tion of the start button 54 provides a tick count TN through

the output 14 in FIG. 2, will thus exhibit a modulated request 55 and sets the timer interval to TT miliseconds, in

luminance, whereas the chroma Signal is unchanged. In the step 56. TT was previously calculated in the frequency

light of the foregoing discussion about luminance and 60 routine that is activated by changing the frequency, denoted

intensity, it follows that the modulator of FIG. 2 causes a as step 52.

pulsing of the image intensity I. It remains to give an Since VB6 is an event-driven program, the flow chart for

example how the pulse signal at the modulation input 16 the program falls into disjoint pieces. Upon Setting the timer

may be obtained. FIG. 3 shows a pulse generator that is interval to TT in step 56, the timer runs in the background

suitable for this purpose, wherein the RC timer 21 (Intersil 65 while the program may execute Subroutines Such as adjust

ICM7555) is hooked up for astable operation and produces ment of pulse frequency or amplitude. Upon elapse of the

a Square wave Voltage with a frequency that is determined by timer interval TT, the timer Subroutine 57 starts execution

US 6,506,148 B2


with request 58 for a tick count, and in 59 an upgrade is A delay block 74 is used in order to stretch the time

computed of the time TN for the next point at which the required for traversing the extrapolation procedure. The

RGB values are to be adjusted. In step 59 the timer is turned block can be any computation intensive Subroutine Such as

off, to be reactivated later in step 67. Step 59 also resets the repeated calculations of tangent and arc tangent functions.

parameter CR which plays a role in the extrapolation pro As shown in step 56 of FIG. 6, the timer interval TT is set

cedure 61 and the condition 60. For ease of understanding at to 4/10 of the time TA from one RGB adjustment point to the

this point, it is best to pretend that the action of 61 is simply next. Since the timer runs in the background, this arrange

to get a tick count, and to consider the loop controled by ment provides an opportunity for execution of other pro

condition 60 while keeping CR equal to zero. The loop ceSSes Such as user adjustment of frequency or amplitude of

would terminate when the tick count M reaches or exceeds the pulses.

the time TN for the next phase point, at which time the The adjustment of the frequency and other pulse param

program should adjust the image intensity through Steps eters of the image intensity modulation can be made

63-65. For now step 62 is to be ignored also, since it has to internally, i.e., within the running program. Such internal

do with the actual extrapolation procedure 61. The incre control is to be distinguished from the external control

ments to the screen colors R1, G1, and B1 at the new phase 15 provided, for instance, in Screen Savers. In the latter, the

point are computed according to the Sine function, applied frequency of animation can be modified by the user, but only

with the amplitude A that was set by the user in step 53. The after having exited the Screen Saver program. Specifically, in

number I that labels the phase point is incremented by unity Windows 95(R) or Windows 98(R), to change the animation

in step 65, but if this results in I=8 the value is reset to zero frequency requires Stopping the Screen Saver execution by

in 66. Finally, the timer is reactivated in step 67, initiating moving the mouse, whereafter the frequency may be

a new /s-cycle Step in the periodic progression of RGB adjusted through the control panel. The requirement that the


control be internal Sets the present program apart from

A program written in this way would exhibit a large jitter So-called banners as well.

in the times at which the RGB values are changed. This is The program may be run on a remote computer that is

due to the lumpiness in the tick counts returned by the 25 linked to the user computer, as illustrated in FIG. 9.

GetTickCount function. The lumpiness may be studied Although the monitor 2, labeled “MON”, is connected to the

Separately by running a simple loop with C=GetTickCount, computer 31′, labeled “COMPUTER”, the program that

followed by writing the result C to a file. Inspection shows pulses the images on the monitor 2 runs on the remoter

that C has jumped every 14 or 15 milliseconds, between long computer 90, labeled “REMOTE COMPUTER”, which is

Stretches of constant values. Since for a /2 HZ image connected to computer 31′ through a link 91 which may in

intensity modulation the /s-cycle phase points are 250 ms part belong to a network. The network may comprise the

apart, the lumpiness of 14 or 15 mS in the tick count would Internet 92.

cause considerable inaccuracy. The full extrapolation pro The monitor of a television set emits an electromagnetic

cedure 61 is introduced in order to diminish the jitter to field in much the same way as a computer monitor. Hence,

acceptable levels. The procedure works by refining the 35 a TV may be used to produce Screen emissions for the

heavy-line staircase function shown in FIG. 8, using the purpose of nervous System manipulation. FIG. 5 ShowS Such

Slope RR of a recent Staircase Step to accurately determine an arrangement, where the pulsing of the image intensity is

the loop count 89 at which the loop controled by 60 needs achieved by inducing a Small Slowly pulsing shift in the

to be exited. Details of the extrapolation procedure are frequency of the RF signal that enters from the antenna. This

shown in FIG. 7 and illustrated in FIG. 8. The procedure 40 process is here called “frequency wobbling” of the RF

starts at 70 with both flags off, and CR=0, because of the signal. In FM TV, a slight slow frequency wobble of the RF

assignment in 59 or 62 in FIG. 6. A tick count M is obtained Signal produces a pseudo-dc Signal level fluctuation in the

at 71, and the remaining time MR to the next phase point is composite Video signal, which in turn causes a slight inten

computed in 72. Conditions 77 and 73 are not satisfied and sity fluctuation of the image displayed on the monitor in the

therefore passed vertically in the flow chart, so that only the 45 same manner as discussed above for the modulator of FIG.

delay block 74 and the assignments 75 are executed. Con 2. The frequency wobbling is induced by the wobbler 44 of

dition 60 of FIG. 6 is checked and found to be satisfied, so FIG. 5 labeled “RFM”, which is placed in the antenna line

that the extrapolation procedure is reentered. The proceSS is 43. The wobbler is driven by the pulse generator 6, labeled

repeated until the condition 73 is met when the remaining “GEN”. The subject can adjust the frequency and the

time MR jumps down through the 15 ms level, shown in 50 amplitude of the wobble through the tuning control 7 and the

FIG. 8 as the transition 83. The condition 73 then directs the amplitude control 41. FIG. 10 shows a block diagram of the

logic flow to the assignments 76, in which the number DM frequency wobbler circuit that employs a variable delay line

labeled by 83 is computed, and FLG1 is set. The computa 94, labelled “VDL’. The delay is determined by the signal

tion of DM is required for finding the slope RR of the from pulse generator 6, labelled “GEN”. The frequency of

straight-line element 85. One also needs the “Final LM” 86, 55 the pulses can be adjusted with the tuning control 7. The

which is the number of loops traversed from step 83 to the amplitude of the pulses is determined by the unit 98, labelled

next downward step 84, here shown to cross the MR=0 axis. “MD’, and can be adjusted with the amplitude control 41.

The final LM is determined after repeatedly incrementing Optionally, the input to the delay line may be routed through

LM through the side loop entered from the FLG1=1 condi a preprocessor 93, labelled “PRP”, which may comprise a

tion 77, which is now satisfied since FLG1 was set in step 60 Selective RF amplifier and down converter; a complimentary

  1. At the transition 84 the condition 78 is met, so that the up conversion should then be performed on the delay line

assignments 79 are executed. This includes computation of output by a postprocessor 95, labelled “POP”. The output 97

the slope RR of the line element 85, setting FLG2, and is to be connected to the antenna terminal of the TV set.

resetting FLG.1. From here on, the extrapolation procedure The action of the variable delay line 94 may be under

increments CR in Steps of RR while skipping tick counts 65 stood as follows. Let periodic pulses with period L be

until condition 60 of FIG. 6 is violated, the loop is exited, presented at the input. For a fixed delay the pulses would

and the RGB values are adjusted.

emerge at the output with the same period L. Actually, the

US 6,506,148 B2



time delay T is varied slowly, So that it increases approxi level 29 represented as a dashed line. The short-term average

mately by LdT/dt between the emergence of consecutive Signal level, also called the pseudo-dc level, represents the

pulses at the device output. The pulse period is thus luminance of the image pixels. Over each Segment, the level

increased approximately by

is here constant because the image is for Simplicity chosen


as having a uniform luminance over the Screen. However, (4) the level is seen to vary from frame to frame, illustrating a

In terms of the frequency J, Eq. (4) implies approximately

luminance that pulses slowly over time. This is shown in the lower portion of the drawing, wherein the IRE level of the

(5) Short-term chroma Signal average is plotted versus time. The

For sinusoidal delay T(t) with amplitude b and frequency g,


graph further shows a gradual decrease of pulse amplitude in time, illustrating that luminance pulse amplitude variations

one has

may also be an attribute of the recorded data on the video

tape. AS discussed, pulsing the luminance for fixed chromi

nance results in pulsing of the image intensity.

which shows the frequency wobbling. The approximation is 15 Data Stream attributes that represent image intensity

good for gb<<1, which is Satisfied in practice. The relative pulses on Video tape or in TV Signals may be created when

frequency shift amplitude 27tgb that is required for effective producing a Video rendition or making a moving picture of

image intensity pulses is very Small compared to unity. For a Scene, Simply by pulsing the illumination of the Scene. This

a pulse frequency g of the order of 1 Hz, the delay may have is illustrated in FIG. 12, which shows a scene 19 that is

to be of the order of a millisecond. To accomodate Such long recorded with a video camera 18, labelled “VR’. The scene

delay values, the delay line may have to be implemented as is illuminated with a lamp 20, labelled “LAMP, energized

a digital device. To do So is well within the present art. In by an electric current through a cable 36. The current is

that case it is natural to also choose digital implementations modulated in pulsing fashion by a modulator 30, labeled

for the pulse generator 6 and the pulse amplitude controller “MOD’, which is driven by a pulse generator 6, labelled

98, either as hardware or as Software.

25 “GENERATOR’, that produces voltage pulses 35. Again,

Pulse variability may be introduced for alleviating the pulsing the luminance but not the chrominance amounts to

need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency. This may pulsing the image intensity.

be important when Sensory resonance frequencies are not The brightness of monitors can usually be adjusted by a

precisely known, because of the variation among control, which may be addressable through a brightness

individuals, or in order to cope with the frequency drift that adjustment terminal. If the control is of the analog type, the

results from chemical detuning that is discussed in the 874 displayed image intensity may be pulsed as shown in FIG.

patent. A field with Suitably chosen pulse variability can then 15, simply by a pulse generator 6, labeled “GEN”, that is

be more effective than a fixed frequency field that is out of connected to the brigthness adjustment terminal 88 of the

tune. One may also control tremors and Seizures, by inter monitor 2, labeled “MON”. Equivalent action can be pro

fering with the pathological oscillatory activity of neural 35 Vided for digital brightness controls, in ways that are well

circuits that occurs in these disorders. Electromagnetic fields known in the art.

with a pulse variability that results in a narrow spectrum of The analog component Video signal from a DVD player

frequencies around the frequency of the pathological oscil may be modulated Such as to overlay image intensity pulses

latory activity may then evoke nerve Signals that cause phase in the manner illustrated in FIG. 17. Shown are a DVD

shifts which diminish or quench the oscillatory activity. 40 player 102, labeled “DVD’, with analog component video

Pulse variability can be introduced as hardware in the output comprised of the luminance Y and chrominance C.

manner described in the 304 patent. The variability may The Overlay is accomplished simply by Shifting the lumi

also be introduced in the computer program of FIG. 6, by nance with a voltage pulse from generator 6, labeled “GEN

setting FLG3 in step 68, and choosing the amplitude B of the ERATOR’. The generator output is applied to modulator

frequency fluctuation. In the variability routine 46, shown in 45 106, labeled “SHIFTER”. Since the luminance Y is pulsed

Some detail in FIG. 13, FLG3 is detected in step 47, without changing the chrominance C, the image intensity is

whereupon in steps 48 and 49 the pulse frequency F is pulsed. The frequency and amplitude of the image intensity

modified pseudo randomly by a term proportional to B, pulses can be adjusted respectively with the tuner 7 and

every 4th cycle. Optionally, the amplitude of the image amplitude control 107. The modulator 105 has the same

intensity pulsing may be modified as well, in Similar fashion. 50 Structure as the modulator of FIG. 2, and the pulse amplitude

Alternatively, the frequency and amplitude may be Swept control 107 operates the potentiometer 15 of FIG. 2. The

through an adjustable ramp, or according to any Suitable same procedure can be followed for editing a DVD such as

Schedule, in a manner known to those skilled in the art. The to overlay image intensity pulses, by processing the modu

pulse variability may be applied to Subliminal image inten lated luminance Signal through an analog-to-digital

sity pulses.

55 converter, and recording the resulting digital Stream onto a

When an image is displayed by a TV monitor in response DVD, after appropriate compression. Alternatively, the digi

to a TV broadcast, intensity pulses of the image may simply talluminance data can be edited by electronic reading of the

be imbedded in the program material. If the source of video Signal, decompression, altering the digital data by Software,

Signal is a recording medium, the means for pulsing the and recording the resulting digital Signal after proper

image intensity may comprise an attribute of recorded data. 60 compression, all in a manner that is well known in the art.

The pulsing may be subliminal. For the case of a video The mechanism whereby a CRT-type monitor emits a

signal from a VCR, the pertinent data attribute is illustrated pulsed electromagnetic field when pulsing the intensity of an

in FIG. 11, which shows a video signal record on part of a image is illustrated in FIG. 14. The image is produced by an

Video tape 28. Depicted Schematically are Segments of the electron beam 10 which impinges upon the backside 88 of

Video signal in intervals belonging to lines in three image 65 the Screen, where the collisions excite phosphors that Sub

frames at different places along the tape. In each Segment, Sequently emit light. In the process, the electron beam

the chroma Signal 9 is shown, with its short-term average deposits electrons 18 on the Screen, and these electrons

US 6,506,148 B2



contribute to an electric field 3 labelled “E”. The electrons rim and the anode terminal is chosen Small in CRT design,

flow along the conductive backside 88 of the screen to the in order to keep the Voltage loSSJR, to a minimum, and also

terminal 99 which is hooked up to the high-voltage supply 40, labelled “HV”. The circuit is completed by the ground connection of the Supply, the video amplifier 87, labeled
“VA’, and its connection to the cathodes of the CRT. The electron beams of the three electron guns are collectively

to limit low-frequency emissions.
Something useful can be learned from Special cases with Simple Solutions. AS Such, consider a circular CRT Screen of radius R with uniform conductivity, showered in the back by

shown as 10, and together the beams carry a current J. The a diffuse electron beam with a spatially uniform beam

electric current J flowing through the described circuit current density that is a constant plus a Sinusoidal part with

induces a magnetic field 39, labeled “B”. Actually, there are frequency J. Since the problem is linear, the Voltage V due

a multitude of circuits along which the electron beam current to the Sinusoidal part of the beam current can be considered

is returned to the CRT cathodes, Since on a macroscopic separately, with the boundary condition that V vanish at the

scale the conductive back surface 88 of the screen provides a continuum of paths from the beam impact point to the

rim of the circular Screen. Eq. (9) then simplifies to

high-voltage terminal 99. The magnetic fields induced by the 15 currents along these paths partially cancel each other, and

V”+V”|r-i2T ?cn V–Jn/A, rsR,


the resulting field depends on the location of the pixel that
is addressed. Since the beams Sweep over the Screen through a raster of horizontal lines, the Spectrum of the induced magnetic field contains Strong peaks at the horizontal and Vertical frequencies. However, the interest here is not in

where r is a radial coordinate along the Screen with its derivative denoted by a prime, m=1/O is the Screen resistivity, A the Screen area, J the Sinusoidal part of the total beam current, and i=V(-1), the imaginary unit. Our interest

fields at those frequencies, but rather in emissions that result is in very low pulse frequencies that are Suitable for

from an image pulsing with the very low frequencies appro excitation of Sensory resonances. For those frequencies and

priate to Sensory resonances. For this purpose a diffuse for practical ranges for c and m, the dimensionless number

electron current model Suffices, in which the pixel discrete 25 27t?cAm is very much Smaller than unity, So that it can be

neSS and the raster motion of the electron beams are ignored, neglected in Eq. (10). The boundary value problem then has

So that the beam current becomes diffuse and fills the cone the Simple Solution Subtended by the displayed image. The resulting low

frequency magnetic field depends on the temporal changes in the intensity distribution over the displayed image. Order

V(r) = f (1-(r/R°).


of-magnitude estimates show that the low-frequency mag

netic field, although quite Small, may be Sufficient for the

excitation of Sensory resonances in Subjects located at a In deriving (11) We neglected the mutual capacitance

normal viewing distance from the monitor.

between parts of the Screen that are at different potentials.

The monitor also emits a low-frequency electric field at 35 The resulting error in (10) is negligible for the same reason

the image pulsing frequency. This field is due in part to the that the i2L ?cAm term in (10) can be neglected.

electrons 18 that are deposited on the screen by the electron The potential distribution V(r) of (11) along the screen is

beams 10. In the diffuse electron beam model, Screen
conditions are considered functions of the time t and of the
Cartesian coordinates X and y over a flat CRT Screen. The screen electrons 18 that are dumped onto the back of
the Screen by the Sum j(x,y,t) of the diffuse current distri butions in the red, green, and blue electron beams cause a potential distribution V(x,y,t) which is influenced by the Surface conductivity O on the back of the Screen and by

40 45

of course accompanied by electric charges. The field lines emanating from these charges run mainly to conductors
behind the screen that belong to the CRT structure and that are either grounded or connected to circuitry with a low impedance path to ground. In either case the mentioned
conductors must be considered grounded in the analysis of charges and fields that result from the pulsed component J of

capacitances. In the Simple model where the Screen has a the total electron beam current. The described electric field

capacitance distribution c(x,y) to ground and mutual capaci lines end up in electric charges that may be called polariza

tances between parts of the Screen at different potentials are tion charges Since they are the result of the polarization of

neglected, a potential distribution V(x,y,t) over the Screen the conductors and circuitry by the Screen emission. To

implies a Surface charge density distribution

50 estimate the pulsed electric field, a model is chosen where


the mentioned conductors are represented together as a (7) grounded perfectly conductive disc of radius R, positioned

and gives rise to a current density vector along the Screen, a short distance 8 behind the screen, as depicted in FIG. 16. Since the grounded conductive disc carries polarization

j=-ograd V.

(8) 55 charges, it is called the polarization disc. FIG. 16 shows the

where grad is the gradient along the Screen Surface. Con Servation of electric charge implies

circular CRT screen 88 and the polarization disc 101, briefly
called “plates’. For Small distanceS 8, the capacitance den sity between the plates of opposite polarity is nearly equal to

j=cV-div (ograd, V),

(9) e/ö, where e is the permittivity of free Space. The charge

where the dot over the voltage denotes the time derivative, and div is the divergence in the Screen Surface. The partial differential equation (9) requires a boundary condition for
the Solution V(x,y,t) to be unique. Such a condition is provided by Setting the potential at the rim of the Screen

60 65

distributions on the Screen and polarization disc are respec tively eV(r)/6+q and -eV(r)/6+q, where the eV(r)/8 terms
denote opposing charge densities at the end of the dense field
lines that run between the two plates. That the part qo is needed as well will become clear in the Sequel.

equal to the fixed anode Voltage. This is a good The charge distributions eV(r)/ö+qo and -e V(r)/ö+qo on

approximation, Since the resistance R, between the Screen the two plates have a dipole moment with the density

US 6,506,148 B2



D(r) = eV(r) = f (1-(r/R)),

V(r)/2, by the ansatz of writing the field as due to a linear


combination of abstract discs with various radii R and potentials, all centered in the plane Z=0. In the ansatz the

potential on the Symmetry axis is written

directed perpendicular to the Screen. Note that the plate

Separation 6 has dropped out. This means that the precise

location of the polarization charges is not critical in the

present model, and further that Ö may be taken as Small as

desired. Taking 6 to Zero, one thus arrives at the mathemati cal model of pulsed dipoles distributed over the circular CRT Screen. The field due to the charge distribution qo will be
calculated later.
The electric field induced by the distributed dipoles (12) can be calculated easily for points on the centerline of the

where W is chosen as the function 1-R,°/R, and the
constants a and b are to be determined Such that the potential over the plane z=0 is V(r)/2 for radii r ranging from 0 to R, with V(r) given by (11). Carrying out the integration in (15)

Screen, with the result



In order to find the potential over the disc r-R in the plane

Z=0, the function (po(z) is expanded in powers of Z/R for

0<Z<R, whereafter the powers z” are replaced by r”P(cos0),

where V(0) is the pulse voltage (11) at the Screen center, p
the distance to the rim of the Screen, and Z the distance to the
center of the screen. Note that V(0) pulses harmonically with frequency J, because in (11) the sinusoidal part J of the beam
current varies in this manner.
The electric field (13) due to the dipole distribution causes a potential distribution V(r)/2 over the Screen and a potential distribution of-V(r)/2 over the polarization disc, where V(r) is nonuniform as given by (11). But Since the polarization disc is a perfect conductor it cannot Support Voltage


where the P., are Legendre polynomials, and (r,0) are Sym
metric spherical coordinates centered at the Screen center. This procedure amounts to a continuation of the potential
from the Z-axis into the halfball r-R, Z2-0, in Such a manner that the Laplace equation is Satisfied. The method is dis
cussed by Morse and Feshbach (1953). The “Laplace con tinuation’ allows calculation of the potential (po along the
surface of the disc r-R centered in the plane Z=0. The requirement that this potential be V(r)/2 with the function V(r) given by (11) allows Solving for the constants a and b,
with the result

gradients, and therefore cannot have the potential distribu

tion -V(r)/2. Instead, the polarization disc is at ground


potential. This is where the charge distribution q(r) comes in; it must be such as to induce a potential distribution V(r)/2

Using (17) in (16) gives

over the polarization disc. Since the distance between polar ization disc and Screen Vanishes in the mathematical model,




the potential distribution V(r)/2 is induced over the screen as

well. The total potential over the monitor screen thus

becomes V(r) of (11), while the total potential distribution and by differentiation with respect to Z one finally finds

over the polarization disc becomes uniformly zero. Both

these potential distributions are as physically required. The 40 electric charges q are moved into position by polarization

E(z) = V(0)(3/13)4-(R/2p-46 R):/R)


and are partly drawn from the earth through the ground

connection of the CRT.
In our model the charge distribution qo is located at the Same place as the dipole distribution, viz., on the plane Z=0 within the circle with radius R. At points on the center line of the Screen, the electric field due to the monopole distri bution qo is calculated in the following manner. AS discussed, the monopoles must be Such that they cause a potential (po that is equal to V(r)/2 over the disc with radius R centered in the plane Z=0. Although the charge distribution do(r) is uniquely defined by this condition, it cannot be calculated easily in a Straightforward manner. The difficulty
is circumvented by using an intermediate result derived from Excercise 2 on page 191 of Kellogg (1953), where the charge distribution over a thin disc with uniform potential is given. By using this result one readily finds the potential
(p(Z) on the axis of this disc as

45 50 55

for the electric field on the center line of the screen brought about by the charge distribution q(Z).
The center-line electric field is the sum of the part (13) due to distributed pulsed dipoles and part (19) due to distributed pulsed monopoles. Although derived for circular Screens, the results may serve as an approximation for other shapes, Such as the familiar rounded rectangle, by taking R as the radius
of a circle that has the same area as the Screen.
For two CRT-type monitors the pulsed electric field due to image intensity pulsing has been measured at Several points on the screen center line for pulse frequencies of /2 Hz. The monitors were the 15″ computer monitor used in the Sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, and a 30″ TV tube. The experimental results need to be compared with the
theory derived above. Since R is determined by the screen area, the electric fields given by (13) and (19) have as only

s” (z) = V f(R),

60 free parameter the pulse voltage V(0) at the Screen center. (14) The amplitude of this voltage can therefore be determined
for the tested monitors by fitting the experimental data to the

theoretical results. Prior to fitting, the data were normalized

where f3(R) is the angle Subtended by the disc radius R, as to an image that occupies the entire Screen and is pulsed

viewed from the point Z on the disc axis, and V* is the disc 65 uniformly with a 100% intensity amplitude. The results of

potential. The result is used here in an attempt to construct the one-parameter fit are displayed in FIG. 18, which shows

the potential (p(Z) for a disc with the nonuniform potential the theoretical graph 100, together with the normalized

US 6,506,148 B2



experimental data points 103 for the 15- computer monitor happen to be present in the vincinity of the CRT. This flaw

and for the 30″ TV tube. FIG. 18 shows that the developed has relatively more Serious consequences in the back than in

theory agrees fairly well with the experimental results. From front of the monitor.

the best fit one can find the center-Screen Voltage pulse Screen emissions in front of a CRT can be cut dramati

amplitudes. The results, normalized as discussed above, are cally by using a grounded conductive transparent Shield that

V(0)=266.2 volt for the 15″ computer monitor and V(0)= is placed over the Screen or applied as a coating. Along the

310.1 volt for the 30″ TV tube. With these amplitudes in lines of our model, the shield amounts to a polarization disc

hand, the emitted pulsed electric field along the center line in front of the Screen, So that the latter is now Sandwiched

of the monitors can be calculated from the Sum of the fields between to grounded discs. The Screen has the pulsed

(13) and (19). For instance, for the 15″ computer monitor potential distribution V(r) of (11), but no electric flux can

with 1.8% RGB pulse modulation used in the /3 Hz sensory escape. The model may be modified by choosing the polar

resonance experiments mentioned above, the pulsed electric ization disc in the back Somewhat Smaller than the Screen

field at the center of the subject, located at Z=70 cm on the disc, by a fraction that Serves as a free parameter. The

Screen center line, is calculated as having an amplitude of fraction may then be determined from a fit to measured

0.21 V/m. That Such a pulsed electric field, applied to a large 15 fields, by minimizing the relative Standard deviation

portion of the Skin, is Sufficient for exciting the /2 HZ Sensory between experiment and theory.

resonance is consistent with experimental results discussed In each of the electron beams of a CRT, the beam current

in the 874 patent.

is a nonlinear function of the driving Voltage, i.e., the Voltage

In deriving (11), the dimensionless number 2 t?cAm was between cathode and control grid. Since this function is

said to be much smaller than unity. Now that the values for needed in the normalization procedure, it was measured for

V(0) are known, the validity of this statement can be the 15″ computer monitor that has been used in the /3 Hz

checked. Eq. (11) implies that V(0) is equal to m/4t. The Sensory resonance experiments and the electric field mea

Sum of the beam currents in the red, green, and blue electron Surements. Although the beam current density can be

guns for 100% intensity modulation is estimated to have determined, it is easier to measure the luminance, by reading

pulse amplitudes J of 0.5 mA and 2.0 mA respectively for 25 a light meter that is brought right up to the monitor Screen.

the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV tube. Using the With the RGB values in the VB6 program taken as the same

derived values for V(0), one arrives at estimates for the integer K, the luminance of a uniform image is proportional

screen resistivity m as 6.7 MS.2/square and 1.9 MG2/square to the image intensity I. The luminance of a uniform image

respectively for the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV was measured for various values of K. The results were fitted

tube. Estimating the Screen capacity cA as 7 pf and 13 pf, with

27t?cAm is found to be 148×10 and 78×10, respectively

for the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV tube. These



numbers are very Small compared to unity, So that the Step
from (10) to (11) is valid. The following procedures were followed in preparing
pulsed images for the field measurements. For the 15″ computer monitor the images were produced by running the VB6 program discussed above. The pulsed image comprised
the full screen with basic RGB values chosen uniformly as R=G=B=127, with the exception of an on/off button and a few data boxes which together take up 17% of the screen area. The image intensity was pulsed by modifying the R, G,
and B values by integer-rounded Sine functions AR(t), AG(t), and AB(t), uniformly over the image, except at the button and the data boxes. The measured electric field pulse ampli tudes were normalized to a pulsed image that occupies all of the screen area and has 100% intensity modulation for which the image pulses between black and the maximum intensity, for the fixed RGB ratios used. The image intensity depends
on the RGB values in a nonlinear manner that will be be

35 40 45 50

where c is a constant. The best fit, with 6.18% relative standard deviation, was obtained for Y=2.32.
Screen emissions also occur for liquid crystal displayS
(LCD). The pulsed electric fields may have considerable amplitude for LCDs that have their driving electrodes on opposite sides of the liquid crystal cell, for passive matrix as
well as for active matrix design, Such as thin film technology (TFT). For arrangements with in-plane switching (IPS) however, the driving electrodes are positioned in a Single plane, So that the Screen emission is very Small. For arrange ments other than IPS, the electric field is closely approxi mated by the fringe field of a two-plate condenser, for the
Simple case that the image is uniform and extends over the
full Screen. For a circular LCD Screen with radius R, the field on the center line can be readily calculated as due to pulsed dipoles that are uniformly distributed over the screen, with
the result

discussed. For the measurements of the pulsed electric field

emitted by 30″ TV tube, a similar image was used as for the

15″ computer monitor. This was done by playing back a where E(z) is the amplitude of the pulsed electric field at a

camcorder recording of the computer monitor display when distance Z from the Screen and V is a voltage pulse

running the VB6 program, with 40% pulse modulation of R, 55 amplitude, in which the aperture ratio of the LCD has been

G, and B.

taken into account. Eq. (21) can be used as an approximation

In front of the monitor, i.e., for Z>0, the parts (13) and (19) for Screens of any shape, by taking R as the radius of a circle

contribute about equally to the electric field over a practical with the same area as the Screen. The result applies to the

range of distances Z. When going behind the monitor where case that the LCD does not have a ground connection, So that

Z is negative the monopole field flipS Sign So that the two 60 the top and bottom electrodes are at opposite potential, i.e.,

parts nearly cancel each other, and the resulting field is very V/2 and -V/2.

Small. Therefore, in the back of the CRT, errors due to If one Set of LCD electrodes is grounded, monopoles are

imperfections in the theory are relatively large. Moreover needed to keep these electrodes at Zero potential, much as in

our model, which pretends that the polarization charges are the case of a CRT discussed above. The LCD situation is

all located on the polarization disc, fails to account for the 65 Simpler however, as there is no charge injection by electron

electric field flux that escapes from the outer regions of the beams, So that the potentials on the top and bottom plates of

back of the Screen to the earth or whatever conductors the condenser in the model are spatially uniform. From (14)

US 6,506,148 B2



it is seen that monopoles, distributed over the disc of radius the discussed settings and the 15″ monitor. The center of the

R in the plane Z=0 Such as to provide on the disc a potential Subject’s face was positioned on the Screen center line, at a

V/2, induce on the Symmetry axis a potential

distance of 60 cm from the Screen. A frequency Sweep of

-0.1% per ten cycles was chosen, with an initial pulse

d(z) = VBR).

(22) frequency of 34 ppm. Full ptosis was experienced by the Subject at 20 minutes into the run, when the pulse frequency

was f=31.76 ppm. At 27 minutes into the run, the frequency

Differentiating with respect to Z gives the electric field on the Symmetry axis

Sweep was reversed to +0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis was experienced at f=31.66 ppm. At 40 minutes into the run, the frequency Sweep was set to -0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis

occurred at f=31.44 ppm. The small differences in ptosis

En(z) =

(2233) frequency are attributed to chemical detuning, discussed in

the Background Section. It is concluded that the /3 Hz

Sensory resonance was excited in this experiment by Screen

induced by the pulsed monopoles. For an LCD with one set of electrodes grounded, the pulsed electric field for Screen Voltage pulse amplitude V at a distance Z from the Screen on the center line has an amplitude that is the Sum of the parts
(21) and (23). The resultant electric field in the back is relatively Small, due to the change in Sign in the monopole
field that is caused by the factor Z/Z. Therefore, screen
emissions in front of an LCD can be kept small simply by having the grounded electrodes in front.
AS a check on the theory, the pulsed electric field emitted by the 3″ LCD-TFT color screen of the camcorder men tioned above has been measured at eleven points on the center line of the Screen, ranging from 4.0 cm to 7.5 cm. The

15 25

emissions from Subliminal image pulsing on the 15″ com puter monitor at a distance of 60 cm. For each implemen tation and embodiment discussed, the image pulsing may be
The human eye is leSS Sensitive to changes in hue than to changes in brightness. In composite Video this fact allows using a chrominance bandwidth that is Smaller than the luminance bandwidth. But it also has the consequence that pulsing of the chrominance for fixed luminance allows larger pulse amplitudes while staying within the Subliminal pulse regime. Eq. (3) shows how to pulse the chrominance components R-Y and B-Y while keeping Y fixed; for the change in pixel intensity one then has

pulsed image was produced by playing back the Video recording of the 15″ computer monitor that was made while



running the VB6 program discussed above, for a image Luminance pulses with fixed chrominance give a change in intensity pulse frequency of 4 Hz, R=G=B=K, modulated pixel intensity

around K=127 with an amplitude AK-51. After normaliza

tion to a uniform full screen image with 100% intensity



modulation by using the nonlinear relation (20), the experi
mental data were fitted to the theoretical curve that expresses Of course, pure chrominance pulses may be combined with

the sum of the fields (21) and (23). The effective screen pulse 35 pure luminance pulses; an instance of Such combination has voltage amplitude V was found to be 2.1 volt. The relative been mentioned above.

standard deviation in V for the fit is 5.1%, which shows that The Subliminal region in color Space needs to be explored

theory and experiment are in fairly good agreement.

to determine how marginally Subliminal pulses AR, AG, and

Certain monitors can cause excitation of Sensory reso AB depend on RGB values. Prior to this, the condition for

nances even when the pulsing of displayed images is image pulses to be Subliminal should not be phrased Solely Subliminal, i.e., unnoticed by the average perSon. When 40 in terms of the percentage of intensity pulse amplitude. The

checking this condition on a computer monitor, a problem Subliminal image pulsing case considered above, where the

arises because of the rounding of RGB values to integers, as monitor is driven by a VB6 computer program with R=G=

occurs in the VB6 program. For small pulse amplitude the 71, B=233, and AR=AG=0, AB=2 for full-screen images will

Sine wave is thereby distorted into a Square wave, which is be referred to as “the Standard Subliminal image pulsing.

easier to spot. This problem is alleviated somewhat by 45 In the interest of the public we need to know the viewing

choosing AR=0, AG=0, and AB=2, since then the 8 rounded distances at which a TV with Subliminally pulsed images can

Sine functions around the unit circle, multiplied with the cause excitation of Sensory resonances. A rough exploration

pulse amplitude AB=2 become the Sequence 1, 2112, 1, -1 is reported here which may serve as Starting point for further

-2, -2, -1, etc., which is Smoother to the eye than a Square work. The exploration is limited to estimating the largest

wave. Using the VB6 program and the 15″ computer moni 50 distance Z=Z, along the center line of the 30″ TV at which

tor mentioned above with R=71, G=71, and B=233, a /2 HZ Screen emissions can excite the 72 HZ resonance, as deter

pulse modulation with amplitudes AR=AG=0 and AB=2 mined by the ptosis test. The TV is to display an image

could not be noticed by the Subject, and is therefore con which undergoes the Standard Subliminal pulsing as defined

sidered Subliminal. It is of interest to calculate the Screen above. It would be best to perform this test with the 30″ TV

emission for this case, and conduct a Sensory resonance experiment as well. A distance Z=60 cm was chosen for the


on which the Subliminally pulsed images are produced by means of a Video. Since Such a Video was not available, the

calculation and the experiment. Using Eq. (20), the image ptosis test was conducted instead with a pulsed electric field

intensity pulse modulation for the case is found to be 1.0% Source consisting of a Small grounded doublet electrode of

of the maximum intensity modulation. Using R=13.83 cm the type discussed in the 874 patent. The doublet was driven

together with V(0)=266.2 V for the 15″ computer monitor, with a sinusoidal voltage of 10 V amplitude, and the center

and the theoretical graph 100 of FIG. 18, the pulsed electric 60 of mass of the Subject was located on the center line of the

field at Z=60 cm was found to have an amplitude of 138 doublet at a distance Z=Z=323 cm. The doublet electrodes

mV/m. In view of the experimental results discussed in the are rectangles of 4.4 cm by 4.7 cm. At the large distance Z.

874 and 922 patents, Such a field, used at a pulse frequency there is whole-body exposure to the field, so that the bulk

chosen appropriately for the /2 HZ Sensory resonance and effect discussed in the 874 patent comes into play, as is

applied predominantly to the face, is expected to be Suffi 65 expected to happen also at the distance Z from the 30″ TV

cient for exciting the /2 HZ Sensory resonance. A confirma monitor. The subject was facing the “hot” electrode of the

tion experiment was done by running the VB6 program with doublet, so that at the subject center the electric field was the

US 6,506,148 B2



sum of the parts (21) and (23), for positive values of Z. It was 4. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulse

thought important to use a Sine wave, Since that would be the routine comprises:

“commercially preferred pulse shape which allows larger a timing procedure for timing the pulsing, and

pulse amplitudes without being noticed. The only readily an extrapolation procedure for improving the accuracy of

available Sine wave generator with the required Voltage was

the timing procedure.

an oscillator with a rather coarse frequency control that 5. The computer program of claim 2, further comprising

cannot be set accurately, although the frequency is quite a variability routine for introducing variability in the puls

Stable and can be measured accurately. For the experiment Ing. a pulse frequency of 0.506 HZ was accepted, although it 6. Hardware means for manipulating the nervous System

differs considerably from the Steady ptosis frequency for this case. The Subject experienced Several ptosis cycles of mod erate intensity, Starting 8 minutes into the experiment run. It is concluded that the /2 HZ Sensory resonance was excited, and that the Stimulating field was close to the weakest field capable of excitation. From Eq.S. (21) and (23), the electric field pulse amplitude at the center of mass of the Subject was
found to be 7.9 mV/m. That an electric field with Such a
Small pulse amplitude, applied to the whole body, is capable

1O 15

of a Subject located near a monitor, the monitor being responsive to a Video Stream and emitting an electromag netic field when displaying an image by Virtue of the physical display process, the image having an intensity, the Subject having cutaneous nerves that fire Spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the hardware means comprising:
pulse generator for generating Voltage pulses;
means, responsive to the Voltage pulses, for modulating the Video Stream to pulse the image intensity;

of exciting the /2 HZ Sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results reported in the 874 patent, although

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromag

these were obtained for the 2.4 HZ resonance. Next, the
distance Z was determined at which the 30″ TV tube with 1% image intensity pulse amplitude produces an electric

netic field, and the Spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 7. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video

field with a pulse amplitude of 7.9 mV/m, along the center Stream is a composite video signal that has a pseudo-dc

line of the screen. From Eqs. (13) and (19) one finds Z=362.9 cm. At more than 11 feet, this is a rather large distance for viewing a 30″ TV. Yet, the experiment and


level, and the means for modulating the Video Stream comprise means for pulsing the pseudo-dc level.

  1. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video

theory discussed show that the 72 HZ Sensory resonance can be excited at this large distance, by pulsing the image

Stream is a television broadcast Signal, and the means for modulating the Video Stream comprise means for frequency

intensity Subliminally. Of course, the excitation occurs as Wobbling of the television broadcast Signal.

well for a range of Smaller viewing distances. It is thus 9. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the monitor apparent that the human nervous System can be manipulated has a brightness adjustment terminal, and the means for

by Screen emissions from Subliminal TV image pulses. Windows 95, Windows 98, and Visual Basic are regis

modulating the Video Stream comprise a connection from the pulse generator to the brightness adjustment terminal.

tered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

  1. A Source of video stream for manipulating the nervous

The invention is not limited by the embodiments shown in the drawings and described in the Specification, which are


System of a Subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image

given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in by virtue of the physical display process, the Subject having

accordance with the Scope of the appended claims.

cutaneous nerves that fire Spontaneously and have spiking

I claim:

patterns, the Source of Video Stream comprising:

  1. A method for manipulating the nervous System of a means for defining an image on the monitor, the image Subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an 40 having an intensity; and

electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of means for Subliminally pulsing the image intensity with a

the physical display process, the Subject having a Sensory

frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz;

resonance frequency, the method comprising:

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the

creating a Video signal for displaying an image on the

cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromag

monitor, the image having an intensity;

45 netic field, and the Spiking patterns of the nerves

modulating the Video signal for pulsing the image inten sity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and
Setting the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency. 2. A computer program for manipulating the nervous System of a Subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the Subject having cutaneous nerves that fire Spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the computer program comprising:


acquire a frequency modulation.

  1. The Source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the
    Source is a recording medium that has recorded data, and the means for Subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise
    an attribute of the recorded data.
  2. The Source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the
    Source is a computer program, and the means for Sublimi nally pulsing the image intensity comprise a pulse routine.
  3. The Source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the
    Source is a recording of a physical Scene, and the means for

a display routine for displaying an image on the monitor, 55 Subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise:

the image having an intensity;

pulse generator for generating Voltage pulses;

a pulse routine for pulsing the image intensity with a light Source for illuminating the Scene, the light Source

frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and

having a power level; and

a frequency routine that can be internally controlled by modulation means, responsive to the Voltage pulses, for

the Subject, for Setting the frequency;

60 pulsing the power level.

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the 14. The Source of video stream of claim 10, wherein the

cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromag Source is a DVD, the Video Stream comprises a luminance

netic field, and the Spiking patterns of the nerves Signal and a chrominance Signal, and the means for Sublimi

acquire a frequency modulation.

nal pulsing of the image intensity comprise means for

  1. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulsing 65 pulsing the luminance Signal.

has an amplitude and the program further comprises an

amplitude routine for control of the amplitude by the subject.

k k k k k

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